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浅析英语中的逻辑性错误
  发表日期:2011年12月8日  共浏览1922 次      作者:刘光前  编辑录入:zenglihua
     字体颜色:    【字体:放大 正常 缩小】  【双击鼠标左键自动滚屏】 【图片上滚动鼠标滚轮变焦图片】 

大家知道,时间的先与后,执行者与承受者之间的关系,非谓语动词,省略性从句,介词短语的逻辑主语与主句的主语,比较句的排除与包括,替代词和名词的性与数的一致性等等方面,都存在着一个逻辑问题。笔者在教学中发现,许多学生所提的问题都与逻辑有关,说明他们对这一方面的问题比较模糊,有必要对此作一些总结,现分析如下:

一、时间的先后要符合逻辑

例如:

    1. Come in, Peter, I want to show you something .

[]Oh, how nice of you !  I never think you are going to bring me a gift. 

[]Oh, how nice of you !  I never thought you were going to give me a gift. 

我从未想到你会给我送礼物。(说话者说话之前不知道对方会送礼物,说话之时已知道了,故用过去时态。)`  

2. Hey, look where you are going !

  []Oh, I’m terribly sorry. I haven’t noticed . 

  []Oh, I’m terribly sorry. I wasn’t noticing. 

哦,真对不起,我没注意到。(说话者说话之时已知道,故用过去时。)

二、不定式的逻辑问题

虽然不定式无语法上的主语,但有逻辑主语。不定式的语态与逻辑主语有关。若逻辑主语是行为的执行者,要用不定式的主动形式,若逻辑主语是行为的承受者要用不定式的被动形式。例如下列两句就含义不同:

1. A. Have you anything to send ?  你有什么东西要寄吗?(不定式to send的动作执行者是you

B. Have you anything to be sent ?  你有什么要(我或别人)寄的东西吗?(不定式to be sent 的动作执行者是已被省略的me someone else。)

2. Have you got a key to unlock the door? (A key unlocks the door.)

3. I have got a letter to write. (I write the letter.)

4. He needs a room to live in. (He lives in a room.)

5.[] A. It is possible for our hopes to realize. 

[] B. It is possible for our hopes to be realized.

我们的愿望有可能实现。(hope realize之间是被动关系)

下面几句均有逻辑性错误,错在不定式的逻辑主语与主句中的主语不一致。

6. To be good at English, reading English every day is necessary.应改为:

To be good at English, you’d better read English every day.

7. To make a decision, everything must be taken into consideration.应改为:

To make a decision, you should take everything into consideration.

注意:1)不定式在作表语形容词的状语且与句中主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系时,不定式多用主动形式,这是因为人们往往认为形容词后省去了for one for people。例如:

He is hard to talk to (to talk to him.)

The book is difficult to understand. (to understand the book.)

2)在there be 结构中,当说话人考虑的是必须有人去完成某件事时,不定式用主动形式,如果说话人强调的是事情本身必须完成,则用被动形式。例如:

There is a lot of  work to do. (Somebody has to do the  work.)

There is a lot of  work to be done . (The  work has to be done.)

三、分词的逻辑问题

分词作状语时,其逻辑主语必须与句中的主语一致,反之则属错句。例如:

1. Entering the room, a letter was found on the ground. 应改为:

Entering the room, he found a letter lying on the ground.

2. Seeing from the top of the hill, the city looks like a beautiful garden. 应改为:

Seen from the top of the hill, the city looks like a beautiful garden.

3. Walking down the road, a department store was seen by me. 应改为:

Walking down the road, I saw a department store.

4. Hearing the sad news, his eyes were filled with tears. 应改为:

When he heard the sad news, his eyes were filled with tears.

5. Giving more time , he could do it much better. 应改为:

   Given more time , he could do it much better.

若分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语不同时,分词必须有自己的主语。例如:

1Time permitting, I will finish another lesson.

2 The tiger being in the cage, I was not afraid of it.

但是,下面几种情况不属于错句:

1)分词已转化为独立成分的分词短语

Generally speaking, boys are more interested in playing football than girls.

Judging from his accent, he must be from the south.

2)已转化为介词或连词的分词

Supposing you are in my position, what should you do?

There are ten players in all, including me.

四、动名词的逻辑问题

动名词的逻辑主语与主句主语不一致时,也属错句。例如:

1. He came to the party without inviting. 应改为:

He came to the party without being invited.

2. He was not used to speaking to like that. 应改为:

He was not used to being spoken to like that.

3. We were lucky that we just escaped catching the rain. 应改为:

We were lucky that we just escaped being caught in the rain

    但在wantneedrequiredeserve等动词后面,动名词的主动形式表被动意义。例如:

The sick man needed looking after.

My bicycle wants repairing.

The teaching plan requires further discussing.

五、   省略句中的逻辑问题

省略时间、地点、条件、方式或让步等状语从句中的主语和谓语的一部分时,从句中的主语必须与主句的主语一致。例如:

1. When young , a lot of time was spent on football. 应改为:

      When young , I spent a lot of time on football.

2. He won’t come unless inviting. 应改为:

He won’t come unless (he is ) invited.

若状语从句为it is necessary/possible…结构时,尽管主句和从句的主语不一致,也常常把从句中的it is 部分省略掉。例如:

Fill in the blanks with the articles where (it is )necessary.

We should finish the task as soon as (it is )possible.

六、注意介词短语不是修饰句子的谓语时要改写句子。例如:

At the age of four, his father died. 应改为:

When he was four years old, his father died.   

七、进行比较的时候要符合逻辑。例如:

1. The population of China is larger than Japan. 应改为:

The population of China is larger than that of Japan.

2. My pen is the same as you. 应改为:

My pen is the same as yours.

八、代词应与其替代的名词保持性、数的一致。例如:

1. Four people lost his life in the accident. 应改为:

      Four people lost their lives in the accident.

2. We each has an English Dictionary. 应改为:

We each have an English dictionary. / Each of us has an English dictionary.

 

此文刊发在国家新闻出版总署检测质量优秀刊物、中国外语教学期刊质量检测网络入网刊物、国家教育部主管、华中师范大学主办的《中学生英语》高三版2006年第5期。



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